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Cultivation of Rice in India: Conditions, Methods and Production

Cultivation of Rice in India: Conditions, Methods and production

Rice is the largest produced grain in the world. It is also the staple food for more than half the population of the world. Almost 3.5 billion people are dependent rice as their daily staple and 30 million are dependent on rice for their 60-70% of daily calories. India is an agricultural nation and one of the highest producer of rice in the world. But these are the benefits of rice, whereas growing rice is a mighty task and to understand are the conditions, rice is cultivated and produced

The condition required for a good rice crop cultivation:

Rice is grown under varying conditions in India from. Rice is a tropical plant and demands high heat and high humidity levels for successful growth. It is the dominant crop and requires 200 cm annual rainfall and in areas receiving less than 100 cm annual rainfall, rice can be grown with the help of irrigation, as is done in Punjab, Haryana and western U.P. About 40 per cent of the rice crop in India is raised under irrigation.

The rice fields need to be flooded with water till the depth of 10-12 cm deep water at the time of sowing and during early stages of their growth, this is done to keep the field level and keep the low mud walls to retain water. It is a particular requirement of the rice crop majorly in the plains.

Rice is not restricted to any particular soil but it can be grown in various soils such as silts, loams and gravels and also are able to tolerate acidic as well as alkaline soils. However, deep fertile clayey or loamy soils which can be easily puddled into the mud and develop cracks on drying are considered ideal for raising this crop.

To sum up, the conditions required to grow rice can be said that it needs plenty of heat, plenty of rain, plenty of alluvium and there is no other food crop which is as plentiful as rice in India.

As we understand the cultivation requirements of the rice crops, let us move ahead and understand the labour and method that goes in cultivating this crop

Methods of Rice Cultivation:

Following methods of rice cultivation are practised in India.

  1. Broadcasting method:

This method is so called as the seeds are sown broadcast by hand. This method is practised in the areas that are dry and comparatively less fertile and need much less labour in the fields. It is the easiest method requiring minimum input but its yields are also minimum.

  1. Drilling method:

This method is indigenous to the peninsula of India. Land ploughing and sowing of seeds in done with the capacity of two people.

  1. Transplantation method:

A method that is practised in the area of fertile soil and abundant rainfall. In the beginning, the seeds are sown in nursery and seedlings are prepared and after 4-5 weeks the seedlings are uprooted and planted in the field which is prepared for the purpose. The process is carried out entirely by hands. And it is one that yields the highest amount

  1. Japanese method:

The method that has been using high yielding varieties of seeds and sowing the seeds in a raised nursery-bed and transplanting the seedlings in rows so as to make weeding and fertilizing easy  The Japanese method of rice cultivation has been successfully adopted in the main rice-producing regions of India.



 20/04/2019  sagar joshi

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